The World Can’t Wait
Global Climate Change
by Ellen Gordon
“So today, we dumped another 70 million tons of glob-
al–warming pollution into the thin shell of atmosphere
surrounding our planet, as if it were an open sewer.
And tomorrow, we will dump a slightly larger amount,
with the cumulative concentrations now trapping more
and more heat from the sun...In the last few months,
it has been harder and harder to misinterpret the signs
that our world is spinning out of kilter. Major cities in
North and South America, Asia and Australia are nearly
out of water due to massive droughts and melting
glaciers. Desperate farmers are losing their livelihoods.
Peoples in the frozen Arctic and on low-lying Pacific is-
lands are planning evacuations of places they have long
called home. Unprecedented wildfires have forced a
half million people from their homes in one country and
caused a national emergency that almost brought down
the government in another. Climate refugees have
migrated into areas already inhabited by people with
different cultures, religions, and traditions, increasing
the potential for conflict. Stronger storms in the Pacific
and Atlantic have threatened whole cities. Millions
have been displaced by massive flooding in South Asia,
Mexico and 18 countries in Africa. As temperature
extremes have increased, tens of thousands have lost
their lives. We are recklessly burning and clearing our
forests and driving more and more species into extinc-
tion. The very web of life on which we depend is being
ripped and frayed…The future is knocking at our door
right now. Make no mistake, the next generation will
ask us one of two questions. Either they will ask: ‘What
were you thinking; why didn’t you act.’ or they will ask
instead; ‘How did you find the moral courage to rise
and successfully resolve a crisis that so many said was
impossible to solve.’"
That quote is excerpted from former vice-president Al
Gore’s Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech of Decem-
TCS Bulletin
Volume 29 (4) 2007
INSIDE
Message from the
President
.....................
2
TCS Member
Comments..............6
Book Review...........7
NewsNotes
..................
8
Word Find.............10
Chapter Updates
.......
11
Membership Infor-
mation ................12
TCS21..................12
Upcoming
Conferences
..............
13
Board of
Directors
....................
14
continued on page 3
pg_0002
President’s Message
TCS 29 (4)
Dear TCS Members,
Many of you know that I recently relocated and made a job change to Washington, DC, where federal policy deci-
sions and implementation can affect our individual and collective ability to improve the state of our coasts and
oceans. With a quickly approaching U.S. presidential election this fall, reauthorization of the nation’s primary
coastal management statute, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and climate change and energy discussions ringing
through the halls of Congress, it’s an exciting time and full of opportunities.
With a new year comes heightened expectations and hope for personal and professional successes in our lives. For
an organization like TCS, a new year brings with it both common goals for the organization and its members and
challenges for meeting the fire hose of demands for improved coastal management around the world.
TCS is in a unique position to create a bridge between the national policy discussions and the work done by state
and local governments, regional bodies, private sector entities and environmental organizations, making the best
use of our body of members that represents different disciplines, regions, organizations, and expertise.
With several new members to our Board of Directors, new policies and committees, and our biennial conference
just six months away, TCS has a bright year ahead. For the Society to be most effective, I invite you to share with
TCS your ideas for how we can best serve as this bridge and how we can enable you to realize your most effective
contribution for this new year.
My sincerest wishes to the TCS family for a bright 2008!
The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent TCS nor its Board.
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
2
Sincerely,
Kristen M. Fletcher
TCS President
pg_0003
Climate Change
TCS 29 (4)
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
3
ber 10, 2007. “Climate refugees" is a rather chilling new
addition to the lexicon. Gore emphatically lays out our
imperative; to do everything we can, as individuals and
associations, to ensure that it is the latter question we
will be answering.
For the first two weeks of December, much of the world
was represented at the United Nations Climate Change
Conference in Bali. This gathering marked a global effort
to establish a framework for negotiations on a new world
agreement, to replace the soon-to-expire Kyoto Protocol
for curbing global warming. An intransigent U.S., the sin-
gle remaining industrial nation not signed on to the Kyoto
Protocol, held out until nearly the end. In a dramatic
flourish, only when the Conference had extended into a
day of overtime did the U.S. join the historic deal be-
ing brokered on this Indonesian island. Significantly, the
accord sets late 2009 as the target for a climate treaty—
speeding up the original targeted date, but still timed for
well after President George Bush leaves office.
Among difficulties that delayed agreement were protract-
ed international negotiations that bore a striking resem-
blance to a cabal of argumentative, pouting children,
finger pointing, ducking blame and responsibility, each
refusing to be the first to agree to change; “I will if you
will," and “you go first, then I’ll try it," with the U.S. on
one side of the debate and China, India and other devel-
oping countries on the other. Nearly 190 nations attended
the conference, which opened with a standing ovation for
Australia’s new Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, in recognition
of his recent signing of the Kyoto Protocol. He remarked
that, "The other nations must not allow the U.S. to derail,
delay or water down the Bali mandate."
And indeed, on December 14, 2007, poor and rich na-
tions agreed, for the first time, to each consider ways to
reduce greenhouse gases. The action plan sets the stage
for a new, binding treaty that may be humanity’s best
hope for preventing the worst predictions about global
warming. Developing nations, including giants China, In-
dian and Brazil need only consider “measurable actions,"
while richer nations agreed to seek “quantified emissions
cuts." In an interview with the “Christian Science Moni-
tor," Hans Joachim Schellnhubner, Germany’s top climate
adviser expressed his belief that, “The role of the indus-
trialized countries is to demonstrate that you can protect
the climate and nevertheless prosper and increase your
well-being as a society. Germany has now put together
a package for a 40 percent reduction of emissions—very
ambitious, but we did the calculations and in the end it
will save us money…In particular, we need to be on an
emission-reduction path that doesn’t allow global tem-
peratures to rise more than 2 degrees C above pre-indus-
trial levels. This is very ambitious. But we know if we
get into the 3-5 degrees realm, we will be faced by major
crises like a complete meltdown of the Greenland ice
sheets, a collapse of the Amazon rain forests, a sea-level
rise of 10-20 meters in the long run. So the goal has to
be spelled out, and it has to be as simple as possible. Of
course, achieving this kind of simplicity can be extremely
complicated."
Will history look back and view the Bali conference as the
beginning of a geopolitical shift. In the past, industrial
countries set the terms and cut the deals and presented
developing countries with the results. At the Bali con-
ference, “developing countries were fuming that U.S.
insistence was forcing the road map to confine scientific
recommendations on necessary emission cuts by industrial
countries to a footnote. Their ire was fed by a comment
from a senior member of the U.S. delegation, James Con-
naughton, head of the Council on Environmental Quality
who told reporters that, ‘the U.S. will lead’ on global
climate change, ‘but leadership requires that others fall
in line and follow.’" Kevin Conrad, head of Papua-New
Guinea’s delegation responded, “We seek your leadership.
But if for some reason you are not willing to lead, leave it
to the rest of us. Please get out of the way."
Another unprecedented event announced during the Bali
conference: over 200 climate scientists put away their
traditional dispassionate stance and urged government
leaders to take radical action to slow global warming
because "there is no time to lose." Signers of the peti-
tion called for the world to cut greenhouse gas emissions
in half by 2050. "The amount of carbon dioxide in our
atmosphere now far exceeds the natural range of the
past 650,000 years, and it is rising very quickly due to
human activity," the scientists stated. "If this trend is not
halted soon, many millions of people will be at risk from
extreme events such as heat waves, drought, floods and
storms, our coasts and cities will be threatened by rising
sea levels, and many ecosystems, plants and animal spe-
cies will be in serious danger of extinction."
On November 16, 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC), co-recipients of the Nobel Peace
Prize with Al Gore, published their “Synthesis Report of
the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report." It stated that,
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is
1.
now evident from observations of increases in global
continued from page 1
continued on page 4
pg_0004
Climate Change
TCS 29 (4)
continued on page 5
continued from page 3
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
4
by climate change. Particular areas of concern include
coastal ecosystems, especially mangroves and salt
marshes, due to multiple stresses; coral reefs, also due
to multiple stresses (including ocean acidification); and
the sea ice biome, because of sensitivity to warming. Low
lying coastal ecosystems will be seriously impacted by
sea level rise and increased risk from extreme weather
events. Small islands will also suffer disproportionately,
due to high exposure of population and infrastructure to
projected climate changes.
Sobering summative statements in this report include:
Altered frequencies and intensities of extreme weather,
average air and ocean temperatures, widespread
melting of snow and ice, and rising global sea level.
Observational evidence from all continents and most
2.
oceans shows that many natural systems are being
affected by regional climate changes, particularly
temperature increases.
There is medium confidence that other effects of re -
3.
gional climate change on natural and human environ-
ments are emerging, although many are difficult to
discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers.
The Synthesis Report points out that certain systems,
sectors and regions are likely to be especially hard hit
Warming of the climate
system is unequivocal
• Increasing global air and ocean
temperatures
• Rising global average sea level
• Reductions of snow and ice
pg_0005
mitigation action. Their applicability depends on national
circumstances..."
What will we tell the next generation.
The impacts of changing climate are already many and
varied. Please be sure and take a look at this issue’s
NewsNotes. In keeping with our thematic focus, all of
the stories focus on coastal and ocean aspects of these
changes.
Ellen Gordon, Bulletin Editor agrees with the Dalai Lama
when he said, on November 15, 2005, “I believe that the
twenty first century can become the most important cen -
tury of human history. I think a new reality is emerging.
Whether this view is realistic or not, there is no harm in
making an effort."
together with sea level rise are expected to have mostly
adverse effects on natural and human systems.
Anthropogenic warming and sea level rise would continue
for centuries due to the timescales associated with the
climate processes and feedback, even if greenhouse gas
concentrations were to be stabilized. Impacts may be
abrupt or irreversible, depending upon the rate and mag-
nitude of the climate change.
Nonetheless, the report offers hope; “Both bottom-up
and top-down studies indicate that there is high agree-
ment and much evidence of substantial economic poten-
tial for the mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions
over the coming decades that could offset the projected
growth of global emissions or reduce emissions below
current levels…A wide variety of policies and instruments
are available to governments to create the incentives for
Climate Change
TCS 29 (4)
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
5
continued from page 4
Route 133 in Ipswich, MA during May 2006 flooding. Yes, this is
a road!
Pedestrian Bridge downstream of the Ipswich Mills Dam in
downtown Ipswich, MA during the May 2006 flooding. There is
normally about 4 feet between the bridge and the water!
PEARLS BEFORE SWINE. © Stephan Pastis/Dist. by United Feature Syndicate Inc.
pg_0006
TCS Member Comments
TCS 29 (4)
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
6
TCS Members Speak Out
Invited to offer their comments on the theme of this Bul-
letin issue, Global Climate Change, here are responses
we received from members.
It would be easy for surfers to get lulled into thinking that
global climate change might be good for surfing. Warmer
water, increased frequency and strength of storms (that
produce those waves we love) and hotter summer days all
sound pretty good. That said, global warming will also kill
coral reefs that make some of our best waves, increase
coastal erosion leading to loss of access, beaches and
coastal property, and increase sea level rise swamping
some of our favorite breaks. That is only the beginning
of the problems. You can learn more about the Surfrider
Foundation’s perspective on global climate change at:
http://www.surfrider.org/srui.aspx.uiq=a-z/global_warm-
ing. - Chad Nelsen, Surfrider Foundation, PO Box 6010,
San Clemente, CA 92674. phone: 949.492.8170x40,
email: cnelsen@surfrider.org
Actually there is something I have been wanting to say to
all the naysayers. Even if you don't believe that humans
are contributing to climate change; individuals, industry
and governments should take action for many reasons. We
need to cut use of and dependence on fossil fuels to save
money, prevent air and water pollution, reduce wastes,
reduce conflicts and save lives (fighting over oil), and
more. Some argue that costs are too high or too much
land is needed for solar power. However, in Florida for
example, there are many large developments with lots
of rooftops. If these had photovoltaic panels, they could
power not only the subdivisions, but also whole towns.
- Anonymous TCS Member
One of the reasons that threats from climate change to
coastal areas, including stronger and more frequent ma-
jor storms and sea level rise, are so serious is that federal
policy has helped put more Americans in harm’s way. Fed-
eral flood insurance has subsidized rapid coastal develop -
ment over the last few decades, and the result is massive
losses from hurricanes, increasing costs of beach renour-
ishment, and other costs of mitigation. Although we may
be “stuck with" federal flood insurance as an ongoing
commitment of sorts, there are new proposals to create
federal subsidies for wind damage insurance as well. One
rationale is that private insurers, who make their money
by assessing risk, are increasingly reluctant to issue wind
damage coverage in certain areas, are raising rates when
they do issue coverage, and are calling for much stricter
and more expensive building codes in wind-prone coastal
areas. Federal subsidies skew the market by masking real
costs and penalizing non-consumers of these subsidized
services. When climate change raises the risks of coastal
wind damages, does it make sense for federal subsidies
for coastal construction to put more people and struc-
tures at risk. - Lawrence B. Cahoon
Coverage of climate change and associated sea level rise
needs improvement. Communicating about them is chal-
lenging because they are gradual, long-term phenomena,
and other risks are more immediate. Legitimate scientific
debate is ongoing. People know there is controversy, but
the range of predictions and underlying assumptions often
are not explained clearly. Communications should accu-
rately portray scientific information, come from trusted
sources, be impartial, and outline policy options. Mes-
sages should be crafted carefully, tailored, and clear. Fol-
lowing this approach would better inform individuals and
communities and hopefully motivate them to consider and
pursue ways to mitigate and adapt to future conditions.
- Rebecca L. Feldman, Master of Environmental Manage-
ment, 2007; Coastal Environmental Management & Geo-
spatial Analysis; Nicholas School of the Environment and
Earth Sciences
Whether the atmosphere cools or warms, the oceans are
changing at unprecedented rates. We are faced with a
combination of changes underway in our oceans that,
for lack of a better phrase represent a “perfect storm."
In our oceans, CO2 is rising and pH is falling; oxygen is
declining, sea temperatures are rising; unprecedented
amounts of nitrogen are entering our oceans. All of these
factors react with each other, exacerbating the direction
of change leading to potential collapse of our marine eco-
systems, uncertainties about availability of protein from
the sea and ultimately to food shortages. These changes
are the result of our way of life and require urgent soci-
etal change--from stopping CO2 emissions to rethinking
how we grow crops with fertilizers. We have no alterna-
tives. Suggestions such as iron fertilization and other
technical fixes represent reckless band-aids. And carbon
sequestration make such a small dent in ridding our world
of CO2 and leaves such an unacceptable environmental
footprint and impact, not to speak of waste of energy to
capture the CO2 that we are left with only one solution;
not to emit these harmful substances.
Also, our oceans are by far the largest sink for CO2 by
magnitudes. Yet the rate of uptake has begun to decline
as the capacity of other sinks is becoming saturated,
leaving our atmosphere without sinks in the foreseeable
continued on page 11
pg_0007
Forty, Fifty, Sixty: A Fictional Trilogy
about Global Warming
global warming made more palatable with
a good story
Forty Signs of Rain, Fifty Degrees Below,
Sixty Days and Counting
By Kim Stanley Robinson
Reviewed by Beverly Jernberg
I’m a rather lazy student and enjoy learning from a good
writer with a gift for storytelling who does all the re-
search. When a friend told me about Kim Stanley Robin-
son’s fictional series on global warming, I started to read
and found them to be engaging, humorous--and terrifying.
The books are set in the near future (the Bush adminis-
tration is not named, but almost perfectly described),
primarily in Washington D.C. The main characters are
scientists working for the National Science Foundation, a
federal agency. The actual science fiction aspect is pretty
minimal, with the exception of super-accelerated climate
change, some fancier cell phones, surveillance equip-
ment--and the concept that a minor government agency
can convince indifferent, self-satisfied politicians to do
something about global warming!
In Forty Signs of Rain, temperatures have risen 6°F, the
coral reefs have died, and a huge, Katrina-like event
happens to Washington, DC. Robinson contrasts the world
events with wonderful domestic situations. Anna Quibler,
one of the directors at NSF, is a warm, appealing working
mom. She opens the first book with her workday morn-
ing; Robinson’s writing is so good that he makes even that
dull event an attention grabber. Her husband, Charlie
Quibler, is a stay-at-home dad to their two boys and an
environmental adviser to a pro-environment senator. His
interactions with his 18 month old son are hilarious and
heartwarming.
Frank Vanderwal, temporarily at NSF on leave from a
University faculty position and an angry ex-girlfriend in
California has the most adventures, both internal and
external. Trying to remain the cool, cynical, detached
scientist, he is completely undone by a monk’s remark
and a sexy encounter in a stuck elevator. A group of Bud-
dhists from a fictional island in the Indian Ocean that’s in
imminent danger from rising sea level round out the cast
and provide a wonderful counterpoint to the western-
thinking scientists.
Robinson, an award winning sci-fi writer with a large
Book Review
TCS 29 (4)
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
7
following, has much in common with his characters. He
grew up in California, has lived in Switzerland and in
Washington D.C. He is married to an environmental
chemist, and has been a stay-at-home dad to their two
boys while continuing his prolific writing. His PhD is in
literature, but he is hugely interested in science and the
outdoors.
He cuts our politicians very little slack. At one point,
Charlie is called to an emergency meeting with the
president’s science advisor. Charlie thinks of the guy as
a “pompous ex-academic of the worst kind, hauled out
of the depths of a second-rate conservative think tank."
The president is called “the happy man" with “such a
huge amount of low cunning that it amounted to a kind of
genius."
In the second book, Fifty Degrees Below, the Gulf Stream
stops and it gets very, very cold. Frank finds himself
homeless in the aftermath of the storm because his
apartment lease has expired and new rentals are impos-
sible to find (flooding during the Katrina-like event having
destroyed parts of residential DC), at the same time that
he’s committed to a second year at NSF. Being an experi-
enced outdoorsman with all the necessary gear, he builds
a tree house in a closed section of Rock Creek Park, goes
to a gym for his showers & keeps his clothes in his van.
This was my favorite part of all three novels for the same
reason that the author ascribes to Frank: a childhood ex-
perience at Disneyland’s Swiss Family Robinson treehouse.
When the extreme weather hits, he struggles to cope both
on a global level at work and on a personal level, living
outdoors in the deep cold.
In Sixty Days and Counting, the third in the series, sea
level continues to rise dramatically and a president is
finally elected who is devoted to stopping global warming.
It’s an interesting exercise to see what Robinson’s ideal,
committed leader does to address the huge environmental
problems that have evolved.
Certainly there are flaws, but they are well worth over-
looking, as the story is wonderfully told, making global
warming a personal, very real prospect. Robinson weaves
in the scientific explanations, his world view philosophy,
Buddhism, and economics with a light hand, creating a
thoroughly enjoyable read.
Bev Jernberg is an avid DC-area paddler and gardener
who prefers winters without subzero temperatures.
pg_0008
NewsNotes
TCS 29 (4)
Climate Change Hits Seabirds in Australia
Birds Australia has released a report that the impact of a
recent coral-bleaching event in the southern Great Barrier
Reef has propagated up the food web to tropical seabirds.
The bleaching event has lead to a decrease in food sup-
ply that ultimately caused the death of more than 2,000
adult shearwaters and breeding failures at several seabird
colonies, with some island colonies experiencing a loss
of all chicks. The group argues for dire consequences for
northern Australia’s seabirds if bleaching events become
more common and more widespread as they are predicted
to with climate change. This would come as a sharp blow
to Australia’s seabirds, as most colonies are already in
decline from other causes, such as invasive species and
habitat loss. Excerpted from APINFO. http://www.bird-
saustralia.com.au/soab/
Scientists Warn Soft Corals Are Melting
In his recent study, Hudi Benayahu, Tel Aviv University
Professor and head of TAU's Porter School of Environmen-
tal Studies made the stark discovery that soft corals are
disappearing from their watery habitats around the world.
Benayahu told Science Daily on Nov. 13, “Environmental
stress is damaging the symbiotic relationship between soft
corals and the microscopic symbiotic algae living in their
tissues." He adds, “There is no doubt that global warming
is to blame."
Like their reef-forming relatives, soft corals play an
important role in marine ecosystems, by providing pro-
tection for numerous fishes and other marine life. In
addition, some soft coral species contain important
compounds used in pharmaceuticals. During the past
two years, Benayahu has observed his study sites around
the globe go from 50 to 60 percent soft coral cover to
5 percent, today. Excerpted from APINFO. http://www.
sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071112105938.htm
Without Its Insulating Ice Cap, Arctic Surface Waters
Warm to as Much as 5 Degrees C above Average
Record-breaking amounts of ice-free water have deprived
the Arctic of more of its natural "sunscreen" than ever
in recent summers. The effect is so pronounced that sea
surface temperatures rose to 5 degrees C above aver-
age in one place this year, a high never before observed,
says the oceanographer who has compiled the first-ever
look at average sea surface temperatures for the region.
Such superwarming of surface waters can affect how
thick ice grows back in the winter, as well as its ability to
withstand melting the next summer, according to Michael
Steele, an oceanographer with the University of Washing-
ton's Applied Physics Laboratory. Indeed, since September,
the end of summer in the Arctic, winter freeze-up in some
areas is two months later than usual. The extra ocean
warming also might be contributing to some changes
on land, such as previously unseen plant growth in the
coastal Arctic tundra, if heat coming off the ocean dur-
ing freeze-up is making its way over land, says Steele.
Source: University of Washington, EurekAlert.
http://www.eurekalert.org/
Urea Fertilization Experiment Alarms Environmental
Groups
Environmental groups led by Greenpeace South-East Asia
cautioned the Philippine government on Monday, Novem-
ber 12 to stop experimental urea dumping in the Sulu Sea,
the body of water between the Philippines and Malaysia.
The project by Ocean Nourishment Corp., an Australian
biotech company, involves the release of urea granules
into the ocean in order to act as a fertilizer to increase
plankton growth. Plankton absorbs carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere and the company is touting its project
as a carbon offset initiative and a way to combat climate
change.
However, environmentalists are concerned that increasing
plankton levels could suffocate marine life and perma-
nently change ecosystems, which could potentially affect
the food supply and livelihoods of thousands of regional
fishers. Beau Bacongis, Greenpeace South-East Asia cam-
paigner, told Deutsche Presse-Agentur that ocean nourish-
ment, which is being promoted as a solution to climate
change is “really an unnecessary distraction" towards
efforts to fight global warming. In October, the company
released one ton of urea into the Sulu Sea without per-
mission from the Philippine government and is now under
investigation. The company has plans for a larger experi-
ment in which they will release 1,000 tons of urea into
the Sulu Sea. Excerpted from APINFO.
http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gMp6Gt_xbFLr1G-
m8TjrTE_zcGFKQ
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/
view_article.php.article_id=100151
http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007/11/austra-
lian-comp.html
AMWA Releases Report on Threats to Water Systems
from Global Warming
Global warming will raise the risk of water pollution and
flood damage to urban water systems, the Association of
Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) said in a report yes-
terday. The association of publicly owned drinking-water
continued on page 9
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
8
pg_0009
line/us/AP-Arctic-Melt.html._r=2&pagewanted=all&oref
=slogin&oref=slogin http://www.planetark.com
Tiny New UN Fund to Combat Droughts, Rising Seas
A new UN fund to help poor nations cope with climate
change threats such as droughts or rising seas can start
up in 2008 after a draft deal at UN talks in Bali, the
United Nations said on Tuesday. The Adaptation Fund
now comprises only about $36 million (U.S.) but could
rise to $1-$5 billion a year by 2030 if investment in green
technology in developing nations surges, according to the
highest UN projections. "The fund can become opera-
tional…at the beginning of 2008," Yvo de Boer, head of
the UN Climate Secretariat, told a news conference of
the preliminary deal. Source: Reuters, PlanetArk.
http://www.planetark.com/
Bali’s Fishermen Adapt to Climate Change
As countries from around the world met in Bali to thrash
out a new framework on fighting global warming, the lo-
cal fishing community is adapting to the looming impact
of climate change. Many are turning away from fishing
to a small but innovative scheme aimed at reviving the
tropical island's coral reef, which is threatened by rising
temperatures and over-exploitation. The scheme, run
by environment group World Wildlife Fund, encourages
people to give up damaging fishing practices and turn
instead to the more sustainable and lucrative practice of
seaweed farming. Source: ABC News, Australia.
http://www.abc.net.au/
Carbon Emissions Threaten Coral Reefs
NOAA Coral Reef Watch coordinator Mark Eakin and 17
fellow coral scientists from around the globe say corals
could begin to completely disappear in 50 to 75 years due
to steadily warming temperatures and increasing ocean
acidification caused by carbon dioxide emissions. Their
findings were published today as the cover story in jour-
nal Science. "Our findings are simple. Increasing concen-
trations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are warming and
acidifying the oceans," said Eakin “The impacts will be
dramatic. Coral reef ecosystems will begin to disappear
within the next 50 to 75 years. Warming and acidification
will have devastating impacts on marine biodiversity and
human livelihoods, especially in developing nations that
depend on reefs for much of their economic well be-
ing. Even if atmospheric CO2 stabilized at 550 ppm, not
increasing to the 880 ppm projected by 2100, no existing
coral reef could survive, the researchers said.
Even emission curbs will not be enough without con-
NewsNotes
TCS 29 (4)
systems predicts rising temperatures will increase evapo-
ration and rainfall and decrease snow pack. Nationwide,
increased precipitation and flooding could overwhelm
wastewater treatment facilities, the report says. Citing
U.S. EPA research, the report says most treatment plants
and overflow-control programs were designed according
to historic water flows and do not take into account sea
level rise spurred by rising temperatures. "As a result, it
is conceivable that water suppliers will face a continually
increased influent challenge from sewage overflows, pro-
ducing high concentrations of Giardia, Cryptosporidium
and coliforms," the report says. The report urges planners
to consider methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
including a re-examination of water transmission and dis-
tribution methods to reduce electricity use during peak
periods, as well as integrating renewable energy sources
like solar or wind-powered pumping. Excerpted from
CSO Weekly. http://www.amwa.net/galleries/climate-
change/AMWA_Climate_Change_Paper_12.13.07.pdf
Antarctica's Penguins Threatened by Global Warming
Antarctica's penguin population has slumped because of
global warming as melting ice has destroyed nesting sites
and reduced their sources of food, a WWF report said on
Tuesday. The Antarctic peninsula is warming five times
faster than the average in the rest of the world, affecting
four penguin species; the Emperor penguin, the largest
and the grandest in the world, the Gentoo, Chinstrap and
Adelie, it said. Source: Reuters, PlanetArk.
http://www.planetark.com/
Have Shrinking Ice Sheets Reached a Tipping Point.
The world's ice sheets may have reached a "tipping point"
beyond which significant melting is irreversible, scien -
tists said at the American Geophysical Union's December
meeting in San Francisco. Recent satellite observations
have revealed that Arctic sea ice shrunk to its smallest
level since scientists began monitoring with satellites
in 1979 and that the Greenland ice sheet thawed at a
record pace this summer, outpacing the previous high set
in 1998 by more than 60 percent. "The amount of ice
lost by Greenland over the last year is the equivalent of
two times all the ice in the Alps, or a layer of water more
than one-half mile (800 meters) deep covering Washing-
ton DC," said Konrad Steffen of the University of Colorado
at Boulder. At the South Pole, scientists have document-
ed large-scale melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet.
NASA climate scientist Jay Zwally states that new data
shows that the Arctic Ocean could be nearly ice-free at
the end of summer by 2012. Excerpted from CSO Weekly
and Reuter’s, PlanetArk. http://www.nytimes.com/apon-
continued from page 8
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
9
continued on page 10
pg_0010
NewsNotes / Word Find
TCS 29 (4)
certed management of other threats to these ecosystems.
Under guidance from the NOAA co-chaired US Coral Reef
Task Force, some ecosystem managers at the local level
have been devising "local action plans" to cope with coral
bleaching impacts.
www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2007/20071213_carbon-
coral.html
Additional Resources of Possible Interest
Rhode Island’s draft climate change and sea level rise
regulations will be supplemented and further modified in
the coming months, and are the basis for the State's plan-
ning and regulatory changes. http://www.crmc.ri.gov/
news/pdf/Redbook_145rev_Oct4proposed.pdf
The Institute of Development Studies In-Focus (Issue 2,
November 2007) focuses on recent research on climate
change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. http://
www.ids.ac.uk/go/publications/ids-series-publications/
in-focus
A report entitled Regional Impacts of Climate Change:
Four Case Studies in the United States was prepared for
the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. http://www.
pewclimate.org/regional_impacts
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
10
The total economic cost of climate change in the United
States will be major and nationwide in scope, but remains
uncounted, unplanned for and largely hidden in public
debate, says a new study from the University of Mary-
land. The report, The U.S. Economic Impacts of Climate
Change and the Costs of Inaction, is the first to pull
together and analyze the previous economic research on
the subject, along with other relevant data, in order to
develop a more complete estimate of costs.
www.cier.umd.edu/climateadaptation/index.html
The Synthesis Report of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change provides an integrated view of cli-
mate change as the final part of the IPCC's 4th Assessment
Report. All of the IPCC reports are available at: http://
www.ipcc.ch.
The U.S. Drought Portal was officially launched on
November 1, 2007. It was created to provide compre-
hensive information on emerging and ongoing droughts,
and to enhance the nation's drought preparedness. www.
drought.gov
For real time coral reef data on bleaching and tempera-
tures, see: http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/
T
G
N
L
D
T
P
E
N
W
T
O
F
D
C
T
N
O
I
T
A
C
I
F
I
D
I
C
A
L
E
P
E
J
E
T
R
G
G
N
I
M
R
A
W
E
W
U
K
L
F
E
N
E
V
R
B
G
C
O
H
O
Q
N
B
V
D
I
G
T
O
R
L
0
R
S
R
N
B
A
I
E
T
U
N
A
I
Z
P
N
C
B
D
V
W
G
T
L
N
G
M
M
E
R
0
I
I
N
E
E
R
G
E
R
A
T
M
I
A
I
T
0
I
P
N
L
U
M
T
S
S
A
R
L
T
C
F
W
O
E
T
S
E
V
R
E
S
N
O
C
R
U
O
W
R
N
0
C
R
Q
P
I
F
S
N
A
E
S
A
I
A
Y
J
E
L
A
D
I
T
I
T
L
L
R
S
E
N
A
C
I
R
R
U
H
T
N
S
E
S
I
R
L
E
V
E
L
A
E
S
X
A
B
N
O
R
E
C
L
A
Y
G
R
E
N
E
T
G
N
L
D
T
P
E
N
W
T
O
F
D
C
T
N
O
I
T
A
C
I
F
I
D
I
C
A
L
E
P
E
J
E
T
R
G
G
N
I
M
R
A
W
E
W
U
K
L
F
E
N
E
V
R
B
G
C
O
H
O
Q
N
B
V
D
I
G
T
O
R
L
0
R
S
R
N
B
A
I
E
T
U
N
A
I
Z
P
N
C
B
D
V
W
G
T
L
N
G
M
M
E
R
0
I
I
N
E
E
R
G
E
R
A
T
M
I
A
I
T
0
I
P
N
L
U
M
T
S
S
A
R
L
T
C
F
W
O
E
T
S
E
V
R
E
S
N
O
C
R
U
O
W
R
N
0
C
R
Q
P
I
F
S
N
A
E
S
A
I
A
Y
J
E
L
A
D
I
T
I
T
L
L
R
S
E
N
A
C
I
R
R
U
H
T
N
S
E
S
I
R
L
E
V
E
L
A
E
S
X
A
B
N
O
R
E
C
L
A
Y
G
R
E
N
E
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE WORD FIND
ACIDIFICATION
ANTARCTICSHEET
BIOFUELS
CARBONNEUTRAL
CONSERVE
CLIMATE
ENERGY
EXTINCTIONS
GREEN
HURRICANES
MELTING
RENEWABLE
SEALEVELRISE
SOLAR
TIDAL
WARMING
WIND
Words may be horizontal, vertical (up
or down) or diagonal.
continued from page 9
pg_0011
Chapter Updates
TCS 29 (4)
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
11
University of Hawaii
TCS Hawaii has big plans for 2008! We plan to hold our
first chapter meeting of the new year in January, followed
by membership drive events in February and March. TCS
Hawaii continues to administer the Hawaii Coastal Con-
servation Committee (HCCC) which has been meeting
monthly to discuss coastal issues in Hawaii. HCCC will be
lobbying the 2008 Hawaii State Legislature to update cur-
rent coastal laws. In addition, HCCC plans to organize a
coastal-themed conference in the late spring.
University of Rhode Island
This fall, the URI student chapter of TCS sponsored a
variety of events. Our fall forum series offered a wide
array of topics, from offshore wind energy in Massachu-
setts to local conservation efforts in Narragansett Bay.
We also had several social events, including a welcome
picnic at the beginning of our semester and a happy hour
meeting at a local restaurant. New this year was our
"international feast" for Thanksgiving. We have several
international members, and this potluck was a way for
quarter's events so successful. Our first event of the year
was a Blue Drinks, which brought in ocean-minded gradu-
ate students, faculty, and alumni from the Departments
of Fisheries, Oceanography, Civil Engineering, Education,
and Marine Affairs. It was a very eclectic group. Over the
quarter we have had four Brown Bag speakers: Catarina
Santos (a visiting student from Portugal), Burt Hamner
(Puget Sound Tidal Energy), Dr. John Delaney (UW profes-
sor and Director of Neptune Project), and Kathy Fletcher
(People for Puget Sound). Thank you to all of our great
speakers!!
TCSUW members also participated in Green Seattle Day
by planting native trees at Seattle's Discovery Park. Final-
ly, TCSUW has been busy planning the 2008 Fisheries and
Marine Ecosystems (FAME) Graduate Student Conference,
which will be held April 11-13 on the beautiful Olympic
Peninsula. Check out our website at http://depts.wash-
ington.edu/fame2008/Home.shtml for more information
and to register. We hope to see you all there!
future, for the excess CO2 we are pouring in every min-
ute. And, this doesn’t even address the sea level change
problems that will affect our coastal cities and towns,
economies and public infrastructures from melting ice
and temperature rises.
Pretty gruesome future if we don’t change our ways now.
We have the opportunity to slow the ocean changes and
give marine life the chance to adapt if we give them more
time than is predicted under current conditions. Their re-
siliency may be strengthened with time. Without holding
back time through immediate curbs on emissions, we shall
bear the consequences. In that case, we had better start
preparing for those eventualities.
- Judy Kildow
continued from page 6
students to share recipes and give thanks.
We also held monthly beach cleanups at a
right-of-way that our chapter adopted in
Narragansett, RI.
Our chapter has worked on increasing
membership by expanding recruiting ef-
forts to our second campus, the "Bay Cam-
pus," as well as promoting forums and so-
cial events with undergraduate students.
This spring we are planning a career panel
of URI alumni, as well as a spring "brown
bag" seminar series.
University of Washington
Fall quarter has been a busy one, filled
with great TCS activities. We started off
the year getting a whole new batch of
TCS members, who have helped make this
Olympic Peninsula, Washington
pg_0012
Membership Info / TCS 21
TCS 29 (4)
Please join us for The Coastal Society’s 21st International Conference…
“Coastal Footprints: Minimizing Human Impacts, Maximizing
Stewardship"
June 29 - July 2, 2008
Redondo Beach, Los Angeles, CA
For more information, visit:
www.thecoastalsociety.org/conference/tcs21/
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
12
Enhancing your membership benefits through….
An online subscription to the Coastal Management Journal…
A members-only accessible website…
An Easier, faster way to join or renew your membership…
In response to TCS membership input from a 2006 survey regarding improving membership services and benefits, TCS
has moved to address your needs for additional access to timely coastal zone management research and discussion.
TCS has partnered with the Coastal Management Journal to deliver an online subscription at a reduced rate for regular
members. Student members responded that this journal is easily accessible through university libraries and thus this
on-line access is not included in their dues. This online subscription helps TCS reduce its carbon footprint and support
our long-standing tradition as an ecologically sound society. A members-only website will provide additional access for
all members to web material that is relevant to the TCS membership and weekly emails will continue to deliver up-to-
the-moment information on important issues and opportunities in the coastal management.
Membership dues have minimally increased to reflect the addition of the on-line access to the Coastal Management
Journal and increased members services. The Society has also created an easier process to join or renew your mem-
bership to TCS. The transition to a regular calendar year membership period over the coming year will be aided by
pro-rating existing memberships appropriately. In 2008, you will receive a renewal notice at your membership anniver-
sary date.
2008 TCS Annual membership dues:
Regular: $60 (previously $35)
Student: $18 (previously $15)
Library and Corporate/Agency Dues have not changed.
Questions. Email: coastalsoc@aol.com or go to
http://www.thecoastalsociety.org
pg_0013
Upcoming Conference
TCS 28 (2)
Climate Change: Science and Solutions
January 16-18, 2008, Washington, DC
Developinig comprehensive strategies for protecting peo-
ple and the planet against the threat of climate change.
http://ncesonline.org/2008conference/
Living with Climate Change: Are There Limits to Adap-
tation.
February 7-8, 2008, London, UK
http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/research/programme3/adap-
tation2008/index.html
Aquaculture America 2008, Conference and Exposition
February 9-12, 2008, Lake Buena Vista, Florida
http://www.was.org
Climate Change and Biodiversity in the Americas
Feb 25-29, 2008, Smithsonian Tropical Research Center,
Panama http://www.climatechangeandbiodiversity.ca
Ocean Sciences Meeting (Theme: From the Watershed
to the Global Ocean)
March 2-7, 2008, Orlando, Florida
Co-sponsored by the American Society of Limnology &
Oceanography, the American Geophysical Union, The
Oceanography Society, and Estuarine Research Fed.
http://www.aslo.org/meetings/orlando2008/
GIS and Water Resources IV, American Water Resources
Association Spring Specialty Conference
March 17-19, 2008, San Mateo, CA
GIS has become a necessary component in planning and
managing water resources. This conference is the AWRA
biennial survey of the state of knowledge in this field.
www.awra.org/meetings/San_Mateo2008/index.html
4th Global Conference on Oceans, Coasts and Islands
April 7-11, 2008, Hanoi, Vietnam
Organized by the Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts, and
Islands and hosted by the government of Vietnam
www.globaloceans.org/
Solutions to Coastal Disasters Conference 2008
April 13-16, 2008, Turtle Bay Resort, Oahu, Hawaii,
Focus on science, management tools, challenges and op-
tions, and policy related to a range of coastal hazards.
http://content.asce.org/conferences/cd2008/
Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network National
Science Meeting
Apr 28-May 3, 2008, Gatineau, Quebec
http://www.eman-rese.ca/eman/events
Upcoming Conferences
TCS 29 (4)
15th Annual International Conference on the Great
Lakes/St Lawrence River Ecosystem (Theme: Managing
Ecosystems, Regulated Rivers & Watersheds)
May 5-8, 2008, Cornwall, ON
http://www.riverinstitute.com/events/
Coastal Environment 2008 (Seventh International Con-
ference on Environmental Problems in Coastal Regions
including Oil and Chemical Spill Studies)
May 19-21, 2008; The New Forest, UK
http://www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2008/coast08/
index.html
2008 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of
Geographers (Theme: 400 Years of Discovery)
May 20-24, 2008m Québec City
http://www.cagquebec2008.org
Coastal Zone Canada 2008 Conference
May 23-29, 2008, Vancouver, BC
http://www.czca-azcc.org
Summer Institute in Advanced Coastal Management
Jun 9-27, 2008, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island
http://www.crc.uri.edu/
Coastal Footprints: Minimizing Human Impacts, Maxi-
mizing Stewardship
June 29-July 2, 2008, Redondo Beach, Los Angeles, CA
thecoastalsociety.org/conference/tcs21/index.html
11th International Coral Reef Symposium
July 7-11, 2008, Ft Lauderdale, Florida
http://www.nova.edu/ncri/11icrs
Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration Conference
(GEER '08): Planning, Policy and Science
July 28-August 1, 2008, Naples, FL
UF/IFAS Office of Conferences and Institutes (OCI)
PO Box 110750 / Gainesville, FL 32611-0750
PHONE: 1-352-392-5930 / FAX 1-352-392-9734
EMAIL: bmt@ufl.edu
4th National Conference on Coastal and Estuarine Habi-
tat Restoration
October 11-15, 2007, Providence, RI
http://www.estuaries.org/.id-=4
4th International Symposium on Deep Sea Corals
December 1-5, 2008, Wellington, New Zealand
http://coral2008.niwa.co.nz.index.php
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
13
pg_0014
Board of Directors
TCS 29 (4)
Richard H. Burroughs
Dept. of Marine Affairs
University of Rhode Island
PH: (401) 874-4045
E-MAIL: rburroughs@uri.edu
(Education Committee Co-Chair)
Patrick J. Christie
School of Marine Affairs -and-
Jackson School of International Studies
University of Washington
PH: (206) 685-6661
E-MAIL: patrickc@u.washington.edu
Ariel A. Cuschnir
Coastal Programs
The Louis Berger Group, Inc.
PH: (202) 303-2750
E-MAIL: acushnir@louisberger.com
(International Integration Working Group
Chair)
Tali Engoltz
NJ Dept. of Environmental Protection
Coastal Management Program
PH: (609) 633-2201
E-MAIL: Tali.Engoltz@dep.state.nj.us
Robert F. Goodwin
PH: (509) 422-1733
E-MAIL: goodrf@communitynet.org
(Influcation Working Group Chair)
Larry Hildebrand
Strategic Integration Office
Environment Canada-Atlantic
PH: (902) 426-2131
E-MAIL: larry.hildebrand@ec.gc.ca
Laurie Jodice
PH: (864) 656-2209
E-MAIL: jodicel@yahoo.com
Susan White
Hollings Marine Laboratory -and-
Center for Excellence in Oceans and
Human Health
NOAA National Center for Coastal Ocean
Science
PH: (843) 762-8993
E-MAIL: Susan.White@noaa.gov
Thomas E. Bigford
NOAA/Nat'l Marine Fisheries Service
Office of Habitat Conservation
PH: (301) 713-4300 xt. 131
E-MAIL: thomas.bigford@noaa.gov
(Membership Committee Chair)
Gib L. Chase
EcoConsultants International LLC
PH: (508) 393-9548
E-MAIL: ecoci@charter.net
(Education Committee Co-Chair and
Development Committee Co-Chair)
Kimberly Lellis
Department of Natural Resources Science
Coastal Institute in Kingston
University of Rhode Island
PH: (401) 829-7151
E-MAIL: kimberlylellis@yahoo.com
Special Projects Committee Co-Chair
Christine Patrick
PH: (301) 466-4849
E-MAIL: christine.patrick@gmail.com
(Chapters Committee Chair)
Duke University Student Chapter
Carly Knoell, Chapter Liaison
E-MAIL: carly.knoell@duke.edu
www.env.duke.edu/students/tcs.html
East Carolina Student Chapter
Kevin Miller, President
E-MAIL: khm1212@ecu.edu
www.edu.edu/org/tcs
University of Hawaii Student Chapter
India Clark, President
E-MAIL: tcs@hawaii.edu
Harmonee Williams, Chapter Liaison
E-MAIL: harmoneew@gmail.com
Univ. of Rhode Island Student Chapter
Matt Nixon, Co-President
E-MAIL: matthew.nixon@mail.uri.edu
Willie Whitmore, Co-President and
Chapter Liaison
E-MAIL: wwhitmore@mail.uri.edu
Univ. of Washington Student Chapter
Sara Earhart, Chapter Liaison
E-MAIL: tcsuw@u.washington.edu
Maile Sullivan, President
E-MAIL: mailesul@u.washington.edu
The Coastal Society
Tax ID Number: 52-1082650
www.thecoastalsociety.org
DIRECTORS
TCS Office
Judy Tucker, CAE, Executive Director
P.O. Box 3590
Williamsburg, VA 23187-3590
PH: (757) 565-0999
FAX: (757) 565-0299
E-MAIL: coastalsoc@aol.com
Bulletin Editor
Ellen Gordon
PH: (301) 407-9155
E-MAIL: ellen@gordonballard.com
Bulletin Designer and Publisher
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Dept. of Natural Resources Conservation
PH: (413) 545-6641
E-MAIL: Loomis@nrc.umass.edu
David Loomis and Sarah Pautzke
Tax Preparation
Swart, Lalande & Associates, PC
Chas Rannells
PH: (703) 361-6126
E-MAIL:crannells@slacpa.com
EX-OFFICIO BOARD MEMBERS
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
Kristen Fletcher (President)
Coastal States Organization
PH: (202) 508-3861
E-MAIL:
kfletcher@coastalstates.org
(Strategic Planning Working
Group Chair)
Jeff Benoit (Pres.-Elect)
Restore America's Estuaries
PH: (703) 524-0248
E-MAIL: jbenoit@estuaries.org
(Special Projects Committee
Co-Chair)
Paul C. Ticco, PhD (Past Pres.)
National Marine Sanctuary
Program
NOAA
PH: (301) 713-7240
E-MAIL: paul.ticco@noaa.gov
(Nominations Committee Chair
and Development Committee
Co-Chair)
Maurice "Mo" P. Lynch (Trea-
surer)
College of William and Mary
Virginia Institute of Marine
Sciences
PH: (804) 542-4852
E-MAIL: mlynch@vims.edu
(Finance Committee Chair)
Helene Scalliet (Secretary)
National Marine Sanctuary
Program
NOAA
PH: (301) 713-3125, ext. 281
E-MAIL:
helene.scalliet@noaa.gov
(Communications Committee
Chair)
OFFICERS
TCS BULLETIN
VOLUME 29 (4) 2007
14
pg_0015
MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION TO THE COASTAL SOCIETY
(Please print out and complete all blanks.)
Name: ____________________________________________________________________________
Last First Middle Initial
Organization: ______________________________________________________________________
Street: ______________________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip: ______________________________________________________________________
Home Address (if preferred mailing address):
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
Day Phone: (____)______________________ E-Mail: _______________________________
Present Occupation: _______________________________________________________________
Primary Interest: _______________________________________________________________
Sponsored/Referred by: _______________________________________________________________
Signature: ______________________________________ Today's Date: ___________________
Type of Membership:
Individual Regular: __ $60 U.S. 1-year
Student: __ $18 U.S.
U.S. Library: __ $50 U.S.
Corporate/Agency: __ $250 U.S.
Dues Payment:
Select membership category and number of years (discount for 2 or 3 years).
To pay by check: Make check payable to: The Coastal Society. Please mail check and application
to: PO Box 3590, Williamsburg, VA 23187-3590.
To pay by credit card: We cannot accept credit card information other than through the PayPal
option. Please go to the TCS online membership form if you wish to pay by credit card
(http://www.thecoastalsociety.org/membersub.html).
Thank you for your support.
The Coastal Society is an organization of private sector, academic, and government professionals and students dedicated to
actively addressing emerging coastal issues by fostering dialogue, forging partnerships, and promoting
communication and education.
Bulletin Application