Record Gold and Copper
Find in Alaskan Coastal
by Andrew de Valpine
Nestled amidst the rolling hills at the head-
waters of two watersheds lies a gold, copper
and molybdenum deposit that, if developed,
would be the largest copper and gold mine in
the United States and the second largest in
the world.
The deposit sits on state land within the
boundaries of the Lake and Peninsula Bor-
ough, in southwest Alaska, about 160 miles
(as the crow flies) from Bristol Bay. Northern
Dynasty Minerals, a Canadian firm, hopes
to turn the deposit into a very profitable met-
als mine. At the same time, various groups
have aligned to oppose the project due to its
potential harm to fisheries and water quality.
The minerals at Pebble are in a porphyry sys-
tem, which are typically low-grade deposits,
economically exploited as open pits because
of the poor ratio of mineral to waste rock.
Initial plans showed that at full develop-
ment, the pit would be two miles long and
more than 2,000 feet deep. Tailings from
the development would be impounded be-
hind two tailings dams that could ultimately
TCS Bulletin
Volume 29 (1)
Board Meets to Discuss TCS
in the 21st Century
by Ellen Gordon
Under the threat of a winter storm, TCS
Board of Directors gathered near Baltimore
at the end of January to peer into the future.
The long-planned meeting was an effort to
develop a strategic agenda for the Society
that actively moves us forward in the 21st
century. Ably assisted by professional me-
diators from NOAA’s Coastal Services Center
in Charleston, SC, the Board met for nearly
two days of discussing, proposing, arguing,
questioning, compromising and agreeing.
Beginning with Board members expecta-
tions for the gathering, the group talked
about making the most of TCS for members;
connecting scientists and technology with
managers; mentoring young professionals;
expanding its reach by geography, discipline
and diversity; and increasing member partic-
ipation. Results from the membership survey
in fall 2006 helped focus the Board’s efforts.
The survey indicated that members consider
land use, planning and management; access;
loss of habitat; protected area management;
water quality and hazards; and education to
be among the most important coastal issues
for today. These results and others from the
survey set the stage for discussions through-
out the retreat.
Working on a long term vision for the Soci-
ety, the Board agreed that the strength of TCS
lies in empowering interdisciplinary coastal
professionals, scientists and decisionmakers
to promote and affect improved management
of the coasts and oceans. Paralleling this is
Erin McKittrick
Message from the
From the Editor's
Desk ...........................3
Pew Fellow
TCS Selects Recipients
for Funds....................7
Board of
continued on page 3
continued on page 7
President’s Message
TCS 29 (1)
Either you decide to stay in the shallow end of the pool or you go out in the ocean.
--Christopher Reeve
I think many leaders would agree with me that it is a daunting task to address any group for the first time. However,
with The Coastal Society, I know many of you and for those that I haven’t met, membership in TCS shows your bril-
liance and foresight! All kidding aside, it’s an honor to lead an organization of individuals who are working so diligently
to protect and enhance ocean and coastal resources through pushing traditional boundaries, creating new tools and
strategies, and going “out in the ocean" instead of staying safely in the shallow end of the pool.
The TCS Board of Directors found itself jumping into the ocean this winter with its first retreat in over ten years (see
article on front page). There is much for TCS and its members to be proud: twenty biennial conferences, twenty-eight
volumes of the Bulletin, four hearty student chapters (with another tropical one on the way!), many national and inter-
national partnerships, and a distinguished list of officers and members who have had enormous impact on the coasts,
science and policy, and the lives of professionals in coastal fields.
With all of these achievements in hand, it is clear that TCS is on the cusp of important decisions about its future. And,
what an incredible time to be pushing boundaries: a new Congress, a bipartisan Joint Ocean Commission Initiative,
a growing interest in the US ratifying the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, and a time when effects of climate
change on coastal areas is receiving international attention. The role that TCS chooses for itself in the coming years can
have an impact on these important policies and initiatives.
It is clear from the membership survey and the recent Board retreat that members of TCS care deeply about the coasts,
its resources, and its significance in the larger global environment. TCS can also have an important role in the lives of
people – those living on the coasts, those learning about the coasts for the first or the hundredth time, even those who
may not know of the vitality of the coasts and oceans but who rely on them for food, weather, transportation or liveli-
hoods. During the next two years, the initiatives TCS undertakes will have both coastal environments and people in
mind: nurturing professionals young and seasoned, domestically and internationally, and providing opportunities to
our members to go “out into the ocean" and tackle some of the pervasive social, scientific, technological, education, and
policy issues of our time. Whether it is through new opportunities or through existing conference or regional activities,
these are the challenges for TCS in the future.
I look forward to taking on these challenges with you and I hope you’ll contact me with your ideas for how TCS can go
out into the ocean!
The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent TCS nor its Board.
- Kristen M. Fletcher
TCS President
From The Editor’s Desk
TCS 29 (1)
And the seasons they go round and round…Which brings us to the Spring (northern hemisphere) issue of the 2007
Bulletin. With new faces and old, nearly the entire TCS Board gathered for a couple of days this winter to devote
themselves to discussing the future of the Society—an effort you can learn about right on the front cover of this issue.
Joining that cover story is an eye-opening discussion of a copper and gold mine that would rival the largest in the
world, currently under exploration in the pristine south east Alaskan tundra, in the Bristol Bay watershed.
It’s certainly a cliché; however, avid gardener that I am, I can’t help but point out that Spring is a time of new begin-
nings and new growth. Besides preparing the ground and planting seeds, it’s also the time for me to plan the three re-
maining Bulletin issues of 2007. I’ve had several article proposals, and different ideas for some regular features have
come from TCS members. We are considering doing a thematic issue later in the year, with several articles focused on
a single topic. While we update you every quarter on news from the student chapters, we’re thinking of going a step
further and creating a regular feature, written each quarter by a student member.
And the painted ponies go up and down. We’re captive on the carousel of time….This is my third year as editor of
the Bulletin; I am always interested in suggestions for improvements. I began my tenure as editor as TCS switched to
an electronic format, leaving behind the snail mail delivery of paper editions (excepting libraries or special requests).
While a quarterly publication is never going to scoop current events, going electronic has been a real plus for the Soci -
ety, allowing us to be timelier in our reporting.
We can’t return, we can only look behind from where we came….Having covered impacts and early recovery ef-
forts in some places hard hit by the Indian Ocean tsunami, as well as the catastrophic one-two punch delivered to the
Gulf Coast by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, we want check in on progress. On page 9, you’ll find a report on how TCS
awarded the funds our members generously donated to the Coastal Resource Recovery Fund, allowing the Society to
play a direct part in recovering the coast. In a future issue, expect to see an update on the success of those projects.
And go round and round and round in the Circle Game…While the community of coastal professionals has long
been concerned with the impacts of global warming on the oceans and the coasts, acknowledgement of the problem
is finally rippling out into the general public. I’ve always included information in NewsNotes describing resources
impacted by global warming, but I want to publish some lengthier articles where impacts of climate change are part
of the focus. I’d also like to further explore energy issues and their effects on coastal areas. If you’ve got an idea for
something you’d like to write, please send me an email. If I believe it’s something we could publish, I will usually ask
for a brief summary or abstract. Articles in the Bulletin are not necessarily written by TCS members, but I do want to
strongly encourage members to publish in the Bulletin.
- Ellen Gordon, TCS Editor
(and thank you, Joni Mitchell)
be more than 700 feet high and more than seven miles
long. At full operation, the mine would require 250 mega-
watts of electricity, a road to a port on Cook Inlet, and a
port development. The extent of the mineral system of the
original find is about 90 square miles of alpine tundra.
Exploration was first focused on an area now called Pebble
West. Recent estimates show that within that ore body lies
up to 31.3 million ounces of gold, 18.8 billion tons of cop-
per, and lesser quantities of molybdenum and silver. Aside
from the size of the deposit, an important consideration
is that the minerals are close to the surface, which means
a relatively quick return on initial investment. Then, in
2005, exploration to the east found a richer deposit, though
at much greater depth – beginning at around 1600 feet
below the surface – that has added another estimated 39.6
million ounces of gold and 42.6 billion pounds of copper.
An engineer with Northern Dynasty Minerals described
this as a “re-deal," with all the cards thrown up in the air
and all previous plans on hold. The new, deeper, deposit
would not be amenable to open pit mining. Consequently,
the company is assessing block-caving, and how it might
continued from page 1
continued on page 4
TCS 29 (1)
has been essential to the local people for many hundreds
of years. One important goal is to ensure the health of the
aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems -- primarily salmon re-
sources -- and other wildlife habitats. Concerns raised by
opponents of the mine include destruction of salmon habi-
tat, disruption of the water table, potential for acidification
of rivers if the tailings dams were to fail, increased hunting
and fishing pressures by an outside workforce, impact on
the market image of wild Alaskan salmon, noise impacts
and disruption on large land mammals, and socioeconomic
impacts on Native culture.
Per capita income in the Lake and Peninsula Borough,
comprised of several villages is about $15,361. The popu-
lation is comprised of 73% Native American or Indian
--primarily Athabascan, Aleuts and Yup’iks. The entire re-
gion is facing many challenges as the economic and social
landscapes change. The cost of living is high and economic
opportunities are few. About 19 percent of the population
lives below the poverty line; the mine could offer them em-
ployment close to home. A fully developed and operating
mine could also mean revenues of $12-20 million a year to
mesh with an open-pit mine, or even whether a pit will be
necessary. This new deposit would radically increase the
amount of tailings material to be managed over the course
of the mine’s life, should it become operational, but might
also provide for some underground storage of tailings.
Northern Dynasty Minerals estimates the mine would
operate for 50 to 90 years and create 2000 jobs over its
lifetime, with 600 to 1000 full-time jobs during operation.
So far, the company has spent $128 million on the project,
$49 million of that on environmental studies.
The proposed mine has generated intense opposition
among many in the region, largely because of potential
threats to fisheries and water quality. The prospect sits
astride two of the most productive river systems in the
world for sockeye and king salmon; the Nushagak-Mul-
chatna river system.
Historically, village residents have depended primarily
on the fishing industry as a way to support their families.
Salmon and its role in the indigenous subsistence economy
Northern Dynasty
Minerals, Inc. 2005
Road Study
National Park
or Preserve
continued on page 5
continued from page 3
ic, environmental, and political landscape. To effectively
participate in these unfolding projects, local environmental
and socioeconomic expertise is critical. This is a concern
voiced by many local community residents – both those
who favor development and those who oppose--primarily
Alaska Native, who are place-based and who have a vested
interest in the land and its resources.
The late Jay Hammond, former Alaska governor had three
rules for development: Is it environmentally sound. Do
most Alaskans favor it. Does it pay its own way. These
standards may or may not come in to play, but watching
how they are invoked in the coming years will be another
part of the debate.
For more information on the project, check out these sites:, (then follow the mining, land and
water links),,,
Susan Flensburg, Bristol Bay Native Association and
Deborah McLean, University of Alaska, Bristol Bay Campus
provided invaluable assistance with this article.
Andrew de Valpine,, commercial
fishes in the summer in the Nushagak. (Anybody with good
ideas for wild salmon markets please let him know.) In the
winter he is director of the Bristol Bay Coastal Resource
Service Area.
TCS 29 (1)
the Borough, depending on the market value of the miner-
als being mined. These funds could provide much-needed
improvements in local services, including schools.
Some villages within the borough oppose the mine, and
many of the villages downstream of the project -- in the
Nushagak watershed, and outside the Borough boundaries
– oppose the development. The view of mine opponents is
that nothing is worth risking the water quality of the rivers
that support the salmon runs.The late 1800s witnessed the
beginnings of the commercial cash economy, a way of life
mingled with subsistence hunting and fishing that is the
basis of current socioeconomic conditions. Historically, the
commercial fisheries have been the economic engine and
primary source of cash for most area residents.
The sport-fishing industry is also rallying against the
proposed mine. Though it employs few locals – a source
of tension over the years – it, too, depends on a pristine
wilderness experience to sell to its clients.
Opponents suspect that the regulatory climate of the state
favors development. Two years ago, the State of Alaska re-
vised its Bristol Bay Area Plan and classified the state lands
around the Pebble deposit as “Mineral," implying that
mineral exploration and development would be considered
the best use of those lands. However, under the previous
plan, the land was similarly open to mineral exploration.
Several significant structural changes were made in state
resource agencies by the former administration: mixing
zones (areas where treated wastewater mixes with a water
body, theoretically diluting it to the point where pollutants
are no longer detectable) are now allowed in anadromous
streams, though not in streams that support Pacific salmon
species. The habitat division of the fish and game depart-
ment was moved into the Department of Natural Resourc-
es. Moreover, the Alaska Coastal Management Program
(ACMP), originally designed to provide more substantial
local input to activities that affected the coastal zone – and
operated that way for 20-plus years – was reworked to
concentrate input in state agency hands so that the agency
would be the primary interpreter of the ACMP policies and
standards. The state coordinating agency recently ruled,
for example, that the Bristol Bay Coastal Resource Service
Area was not an affected district for evaluating routine
exploration activities, even though these activities occur
within its watershed.
The discovery of rich gold and copper deposits near Iliam-
na, as well as gas and oil reserves in Bristol Bay have the
potential to significantly alter the region’s social, econom-
Erin McKittrick
continued from page 4
TCS 29 (1)
the need to nurture professionals to fulfill these roles.
An unflinching look at the strengths and weaknesses of
TCS helped guide an honest and open discussion. TCS
members bring a wealth of expertise and experience to the
table. Perhaps more than any other coastal-relevant orga-
nization, TCS fosters the development of students with the
biennial conference, mentoring opportunities, and student
chapters. The conference is also an important resource for
professional networking. Via email and Bulletin publi-
cation, TCS provides useful information to its members
about job opportunities, conferences, and various facets
of coastal management. It is large enough to have some
impact, yet small enough to encourage access.
On the other hand, TCS needs to increase networking op-
portunities outside of the conference, as well as to enhance
communication in non-conference years. The organiza-
tion would benefit from integrating international issues
into its current activities and future strategies. Improving
the Society’s financial stability would enable it to be less
dependent on conferences for support. Accomplishing
more as a Society will require greater financial resources
and an active and engaged membership base. The Board
must continue to focus the Society’s objectives, enhance
its visibility, and improve members’ and nonmembers’
perception of who
is and what it does.
Both process and content received attention at the retreat.
Given constantly increasing demands on time, being ef-
ficient means being more effective. Whether it’s requests
for collaboration or participation, or proposals for new
initiatives, the Board needs to respond in a timely man-
ner. That is a tall order for a Board whose members are
scattered around the coasts, but one that the group worked
hard to streamline.
How TCS can contribute to improved protection of re-
sources and stewardship of the coast was the thread that
connected all of the discussions. The Board considered
opportunities for TCS that ranged from preparing position
papers to increased member benefits and/or membership
categories, additional chapters, partnering with like-mind-
ed organizations (including internationally), providing
issue-specific expertise, strengthening the affiliation with
the Coastal Management Journal, and creating a financial
development plan. An especially tricky issue with which
the Board grappled is how to advocate on behalf of coastal
resources, while avoiding conflicts resulting from political
To maintain momentum, Board members agreed to spear-
head efforts in a range of identified areas. These include:
*retaining, expanding and diversifying the membership
*exploring international opportunities,
*updating the bylaws,
*increasing member involvement in many aspects of TCS,
*developing strategies for existing and future chapters,
*preparing a strategic plan as well as a financial develop-
ment plan,
*developing guidance on advocating for resources, and
*revisiting the vision and mission of TCS.
The future looks bright for The Coastal Society. The
email call that members received in March, seeking a TCS
member to consult on a U.S. Agency for International
Development-funded Marine Protected Area in Sri Lanka
is just one of the interesting new opportunities TCS hopes
to provide in coming months and years for its members. Of
course, the Society is only as vigorous as its membership;
its needs members’ energy, input and involvement. Please
feel free to contact any Board member with ideas you might
want to discuss or an effort you’d like to join.
continued from page 1
TCS 29 (1)
How will climate change alter life for those dependent on
Alaska’s Bering Sea and Australia’s Pacific Ocean for their
food, traditions and incomes. How can marine protected
areas safeguard migratory sea turtles, seabirds and whales
in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Will a network of
marine protected areas designed with local community
input restore the severely degraded ocean habitats of the
Philippines. How can an adaptive management plan con-
serve Japan’s Shiretoko Natural Heritage site in the Sea of
Five individuals from Australia, Japan and the United
States will search for answers to these questions as recipi-
ents of the 2007 Pew Fellowship in Marine Conservation,
awarded by the Pew Institute for Ocean Science. Each
Fellow will receive $150,000 to conduct a three-year con-
servation project designed to address critical challenges to
healthy oceans.
The recipients join more than 100 Pew Marine Conserva-
tion Fellows from 27 countries. TCS congratulates Board
Member Patrick J. Christie, Ph.D., on receiving a fellow-
ship. Patrick is an assistant professor at the University of
Washington's School of Marine Affairs and the Jackson
School of International Studies in Seattle, Washington.
Patrick’s Pew Fellowship project will address the unprece-
dented loss of biodiversity, habitats and ecological function
in the Philippines by facilitating the formation and man-
agement of marine protected area networks in the region.
Working in collaboration with the Coastal Conservation
and Education Foundation, a non-governmental organiza-
tion in the Philippines, he will conduct a multi-stakeholder
process for the network design and implementation.
TCS Board Member Patrick Christie Named a 2007
Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation
TCS Selects Recipients for Coastal Re-
source Recovery Funds
In 2006, TCS initiated a new effort to raise money to
contribute to existing coastal resource protection, restora-
tion, and education projects underway in areas devastated
by hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Approximately $2,100
was raised at The Coastal Society’s 20th International
Conference in St. Pete Beach in May 2006 and initiatives
following the conference. Three entities from Louisiana,
Mississippi, and Alabama were chosen via a competitive
process, researched and recommended by a Selection Com-
mittee, and approved by the TCS Board of Directors. Each
group selected will receive $700 to contribute to an existing
project that helps restore areas devastated during the 2005
hurricane season. You can also expect to see articles in
future TCS Bulletins that describe how the donated funds
were used to enhance their existing coastal resource protec-
tion, restoration, and education projects.
The Alabama Coastal Foundation (ACF) works to im-
prove and protect the quality of Alabama's coastal resourc-
es by identifying and solving problems through education,
participation. ACF has an active habitat
restoration program that plans and coordinates habitat
enhancement and restoration projects in south Alabama.
TCS funds will be contributed to ACF’s Cypress Tree Proj-
ect and/or their emerging Sea Oats Project. The Cypress
Tree Project enhances and restores degraded marsh habitat
by planting a variety of trees including bald cypress, tulip
poplar, southern magnolia, and live oak along Alabama’s
degraded coastal areas. The Sea Oats Project will restore
habitat in areas damaged by Hurricane Katrina by using
volunteers and other resources to replant native sea oats.
The Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana (CRCL)
is a non-profit advocacy organization whose mission is
the preservation, restoration and responsible stewardship
of the coastal wetlands, waters, and barrier shorelines of
coastal Louisiana. Fulfilling the role as responsible stew-
ards of Louisiana's rich coastal wetlands, the CRCL facili-
tates and funds restoration projects to raise awareness
and educate others about the importance of preserving
and restoring coastal Louisiana. TCS funds will be used
for CRCL’s Vermillion Bay Reef Project, which will create
a living reef that enhances fisheries habitat, absorbs wave
continued on page 8
TCS 29 (1)
energy, and protects Louisiana’s coast from further shore-
line erosion.
The Mississippi Coast Audubon Society (MCAS) is a
charitable educational organization totally operated by vol-
unteers. Its mission is to actively encourage the protection
of wildlife and the preservation and restoration of native
habitat, and to promote understanding through education
of all aspects of our natural and urban environment. In
2005, it developed a program, Operation Backyard Recov-
ery, to promote the recovery of habitat for birds and other
wildlife in areas stricken by Hurricane Katrina. TCS funds
will be used to develop the Least Tern/Black Skimmer
Nesting Area Restoration Project, which will restore beach
continued from page 7
Courtesy Alabama Coastal Foundation
grass in nesting areas and improve habitat quality for birds
and wildlife along the Mississippi coast.
Many thanks again to all who donated to this important
and timely effort— your contributions will help to enhance
the habitat and lives of those affected by these natural
Excerpted from Marten Law Group Newsletter, by Laura
Fandino: The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals last month
refused to extend the federal government’s jurisdiction
under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to ponds adjacent to
navigable waters. The decision in San Francisco Baykeeper
v. Cargill Salt Division, also interprets the Supreme Court’s
ruling last term in Rapanos v. United States to extend only
to wetlands, and not to non-wetland waters. The Cargill
decision provides additional clarity with respect to the
reach of federal CWA jurisdiction over ponds, streams, and
other waterbodies adjacent to protected waters. The Court’s
conclusion that the “significant nexus" test advanced in
Rapanos v. United States applies to wetlands only, and not
ponds or other non-wetland waters, provides additional in-
sight into the limits of that recent ruling. www.martenlaw.
From the ACZISC Coastal Update: The Government of
Nova Scotia is moving forward on in-stream tidal power
and offshore renewable energy by sponsoring a strategic
environmental assessment. This effort will review the
social, economic and environmental effects and factors as-
sociated with potential development of renewable energy in
the Bay of Fundy, with an emphasis on in-stream tidal and
on creating a streamlined policy framework for developers.
For information, access
From EUCC Coastal News: Some 100 tons of whale meat
is sitting unsold in Icelandic freezers, three months after
Reykjavik sparked global ire by resuming commercial
hunts. Kristjan Loftsson, manager of whaling firm Hvalu
said the delay was because firms must first test the meat
for dangerous chemicals to see if it meets food industry
standards. Loftsson and Iceland’s Fisheries Minister Einar
Gudfinnsson said they were confident that whaling firms
would ultimately find buyers, particularly in Japan. Gud-
finnsson told Reuters the delay in sales did not change the
decision to allow the hunts.
From the ACZISC Coastal Update: The US National Re-
search Council report calls for a regional management
approach that considers the environmental impacts that
could accumulate if hard structures are permitted on a
site by site basis. The report also recommends chang-
ing the current permitting system to encourage the use
of more ecologically beneficial erosion control methods,
such as planting of marshes.
continued on page 9
face nutrients limit phytoplankton growth. Climate warm-
ing further inhibits mixing, reducing the upward nutrient
supply and lowering productivity. Extrapolating these ob-
servations into the future suggests that marine biological
productivity in the tropics and mid-latitudes will decline
substantially. However, ecosystem dynamics are complex
and nonlinear and unexpected phenomena may arise.
Excerpted from the Washington Post: In the summer
and fall of 2005, marine animals suddenly started dying
off the southwest Florida coast, with scores of bottlenose
dolphins, manatees and turtles washing up on shore. In
October ’05 alone, 22 dolphins became stranded and died,
compared with the usual monthly average of three. Hop-
ing to unravel the mystery, nearly 50 researchers, part of
the Working Group on Marine Mammal Unusual Mortal-
ity Events, undertook a study of the deaths. After taking
samples from 130 stranded dolphins, they concluded that
red tide--an algae bloom that creates a neurotoxin known
as brevetoxin--caused the massive die-off. In the 16 years
since it was formed under the auspices of the National
Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, the
working group has investigated scores of similar events.
Experts believe a range of factors are contributing to the
algae blooms and viruses linked to the die-offs, including
nutrient runoff from farming, rising ocean temperatures
and discarded waste such as cat litter. http://www.wash-
From the ACZISC Coastal Update: The Working Group II
contribution to the “Climate Change 2007 Assessment Re-
port" of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) was presented in Brussels on April 6, 2007. The
report provides a comprehensive analysis of how climate
change is affecting natural and human systems, what the
impacts will be in the future and how far adaptation and
mitigation can reduce these impacts. It also contains chap-
ters on specific systems, sectors and regions. http://www.
Excerpted from Seaspan Marine Newsletter: For years,
conservationists have warned about overfishing of large
sharks in the northwestern Atlantic, as the demand for
meat and fins, coupled with slow growth and reproduction
rates of many species has caused sharp declines in popula-
TCS 29 (1)
From CSO Weekly Report: Rep. James Oberstar (D-MN),
chair of the House Transportation and Infrastructure
Committee plans to introduce a bill titled the Clean Water
Authority Restoration Act. The bill aims to clarify the scope
of the Clean Water Act and its applicability to wetlands
by codifying broad protection and specifically stating the
law extends to intermittent streams, wet meadows, and
several other types of water. The bill may also amend the
phrase "navigable waters" by removing the word "navi-
gable." A version of the Oberstar bill was included in Great
Lakes legislation (H.R. 1350) introduced last month by
Reps. Vernon Ehlers (R-MI) and Rahm Emanuel (D-IL).
The bills would codify a specific definition of "waters of
the United States" to include all interstate and intrastate
waters and their tributaries. This includes not only lakes
and rivers but intermittent streams, mudflats, wetlands,
sloughs, prairie potholes, playa lakes, natural ponds, and
more. Supporters of the bill say it affirms the CWA’s origi-
nal intent to provide broad protections and clarifies juris-
dictional questions. Opponents worry the bill will result
in regulations of ditches, gutters, and groundwater and
result in permitting delays and impede development. The
water law's reach over wetlands was called into question in
the Supreme Court case's Solid Waste Agency of Northern
Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and most
recently by Rapanos v. United States and Carabell v. U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers.
Excerpted from Seaweb: The productivity of phytoplank-
ton is geared to fluctuations in the global climate, and
recent warmer temperatures correspond to lower oceanic
biomass and productivity. This is the conclusion of a study
published in the journal “Nature." The study analyzed a de-
cade of data from satellites which measured surface chlo-
rophyll. The authors combined these readings with empiri-
cal data to estimate phytoplankton growth rates and net
primary production. Using this method, the study found
that global chlorophyll and productivity increased sharply
from 1997-98, and then declined steadily until 2005. The
sharp increase occurred during a negative, or cold, phase
of the El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the
subsequent slow drop occurred as the planet moved into
a warm phase. A companion article in “Nature," explains
that the climate-plankton link is found primarily in the
tropics and mid-latitudes, where there is limited vertical
mixing because the water column is stabilized by thermal
stratification in these areas, the typically low levels of sur-
continued on page 10
continued from page 8
Lakes aquatic habitat from disruptions caused by a grow-
ing number of energy projects. The panel said growing
interest in crossing the beds of the Great Lakes with pipe-
lines, installing wind turbines, and other proposed lakebed
alterations raises important questions about protection of
aquatic habitat that should be addressed through revisions
in state and provincial policies. The report recommends
steps to assure protection of vital Great Lakes aquatic
habitat from disruptions caused by a growing number of
proposed energy projects. Some of the recommendations
include: identify and map areas that should be protected
from any significant lakebed alterations due to the sensi-
tivity of their biological, physical, archaeological, or other
values, and designate them for legal protection; promote
the siting of alteration projects in areas that can tolerate
such disturbances; prohibit uses of the lakebed that are
not water dependent; require a demonstration of clear
and substantial public benefit, including but not limited
to environmental benefit, before authorizing such uses;
and require long-term ecological monitoring be paid for by
those who undertake projects that alter lakebed habitat,
and provide for adjustment or disapproval of projects that
impair the trust values of bottomlands. For more informa-
tion go to
From EUCC Coastal News: The European Commission’s
Joint Research Centre (JRC) has drafted a report detailing
the effects climate change is having on Europe’s coastal
waters and regional seas. The report deals with the effects
of climate change and the human impact on European
coastal and marine habitats. It also identifies gaps in the
current scientific and technological knowledge base re-
garding climate-related impacts, along with policy recom-
mendations to address them. The report stresses that any
policies designed to mitigate climate change impacts will
have to address human exploitation of the seas and coasts,
to ensure sustainable management of marine resources.
10 TCS BULLETIN VOLUME 29 (1) 2007
TCS 29 (1)
tions of hammerheads, duskies and others. Researchers
are now reporting repercussions beyond the declining
shark populations. Depletion of large sharks, they write
in the most recent issue of the journal Science, has led to
the destruction of the bay scallop fishery along parts of
the United States’ eastern seaboard. The study documents
a trophic cascade, demonstrating the loss a top predator
can have on a marine ecosystem. In the absence of large
sharks, the researchers say, the smaller sharks, skates
and rays that they feed upon have thrived. In turn, one
of the middle links in the food chain, the cownose ray,
has become more abundant, wiping out scallop beds in
North Carolina. But Steve Murawski, director of scientific
programs and chief science advisor at the National Ma-
rine Fisheries Service, said the study had not conclusively
shown a connection between declines in certain species
and increases in others. “It certainly shows correlation," he
said. “What we don’t have is a smoking gun in terms of a
predation link."
From the ACZISC Coastal Update: The publication “Es-
tablishing Networks of Marine Protected Areas - Making
It Happen" concludes that connecting marine reserves to
large networks will make marine species and ecosystems
more resistant to threats such as climate change, overfish-
ing or pollution. It reviews the need for MPA networks,
the ecological design criteria for the networks, the broader
considerations needed to ensure that they are set in con-
text, and the key elements needed to make MPA Networks
happen and achieve their goals.
From BBC News: Scottish ministers have announced
funding for what has been described as the world's biggest
wave energy farm. The Pelamis device has been tested at
the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) on Orkney
by Leith-based company Ocean Power Delivery. Scottish
Power wants to commission four more at the same site.
Deputy First Minister Nicol Stephen announced a £13m
funding package that will also allow a number of other ma-
rine energy devices to be tested.
From CSO Weekly Report: A panel advising the Great
Lakes Fishery Commission is urging the eight Great Lakes
states and the province of Ontario to protect vital Great
continued on page 14
continued from page 9
Chapter Updates
TCS 29 (1)
11 TCS BULLETIN VOLUME 29 (1) 2007
University of Rhode Island
New officers for our chapter include co-presidents Matt
Nixon and Willie Whitmore; Azure Westwood is the Secre-
tary; and Kate Mulvaney is the Treasurer. Upon the request
of the new officers, Chrissy Patrick will serve as the Chapter
Liaison with National TCS. Our chapter will be holding
Forums on a weekly basis between now and the end of
April. In total, the spring semester will feature at least eight
Already, we have enjoyed hearing John Pappalardo, Chair
of the New England Fisheries Management Council at a
Forum, and were lucky to have plenty of time for questions
and answers. John joined our chapter for a more informal
conversation in the Student Union coffee shop after his
presentation was over. His session was by far the best at-
tended of any Forum since our chapter incorporated, due
in large part to Jess Dominguez’ and Azure Westwood’s
great publicity efforts.
Our chapter also enjoyed an outing to Providence in early
February to see the IMAX movie “Hurricane on the Bayou."
Its conservation message hit home to our members, and
especially so to new Co-President Willie Whitmore, who
recently moved to Rhode Island from New Orleans. Many
members of our chapter signed up for a recent seal watch
and lighthouse tour run by Save the Bay, only to have the
event cancelled due to rough waters. We hope to have an-
other outing on the vessel before the seals leave the area!
On two occasions, chapter members scrapped their des-
ignated social time at a local pub to join with the Rhode
Island chapter of the Surfrider Foundation in registering
complaints against the dredging project of Point Judith
salt pond, which has gone awry. The Army Corps of Engi-
neers had planned to dredge sand from the salt pond and
deposit it offshore of beaches in Washington County, but
didn’t plan for the mountains of trash intermixed with the
sand to wash up onshore. The opposition to the outcome
of the dredging project was strong enough that the Coastal
Resources Management Council has already begun denying
proposals from the Army Corps to dredge for sand in areas
that are high-risk for trash. TCS members also participated
in two cleanups of local beaches organized by the Surfrider
The combined efforts of past co-president Chrissy Patrick
and new co-president Matt Nixon – and the careful editing
of Treasurer Kate Mulvaney – produced a 10-page version
of the Bylaws for the chapter, which will go a long way in
helping future officers understand how to run the organiza-
tion and will help assure the chapter’s longevity. Along with
approving the Bylaws, the chapter is investigating what
kind of support can be gained from the Graduate Student
Chrissy Patrick has continued efforts to resolve the ques-
tion of the Black Point right-of-way, an access area in Nar-
ragansett that the chapter had originally sought to adopt
through the Coastal Resources Management Council’s
Adopt-an-Access program. The Black Point right-of-way
has a complicated history that includes contested designa-
tions and an eminent domain taking of the property con-
taining the potential right-of-way. Although the property
and the right-of-way have not been questioned for over 10
years, the CRMC has insufficient legal or practical infor-
mation to remove it from its “on appeal" status. Basically,
the case has “gone cold." After extensive research by both
past co-Presidents, Chrissy is drafting a letter to the Rhode
Island Department of Environmental Management, the
current owner of the land surrounding the right-of-way, re-
questing the involvement of the Legal Services Department
in resolving the matter.
While helping to resolve this right-of-way, the chapter has
decided to move forward in adopting the nearest uncon-
tested right-of-way to Black Point: the Bass Rock site.
Adoption of Bass Rock requires the approval of a CRMC
representative and the Town Manager from Narragansett.
Upon the advice of the Narragansett Town Planner, the
chapter will be making a motion regarding the adoption
to the Narragansett Town Council, who will authorize the
Town Manager to sign the Memorandum of Understanding
for the Bass Rock adoption. Before making the motion at
the Town Council meeting, Chrissy has been documenting
the breadth of the site to demonstrate the chapter’s famil-
iarity with it and is pursuing support for the adoption from
the nearest landowner.The past officers also worked hard
on or ganizing the chapter’s First Inaugural Marine and
Coastal Career Panel, which was held on Friday, March 9.
Look for a report in the next Bulletin. We are hoping this
will become an annual event, as many invitees who could
not attend noted that they would be happy to participate
in a future Career Panel. Chrissy has also constructed a
website, to be hosted by a generous Marine Affairs gradu-
ate student with web space. The website contains a listing
and photos of events from the 2006-2007 year, along with
a history of the chapter and information on membership,
officers, official documents, and helpful links. We will be
sure to publicize our website address once it goes live!
continued on page 12
VOLUME 29 (1) 2007 TCS BULLETIN 12
Chapter Updates
TCS 29 (1)
University of Washington (UW)
Continuing our tradition of Brown Bag Lunches, TCS UW’s
first speaker this year was Steph Frenzl of the Snohomish
County Marine Resources Committee (MRC). On February
13th, he provided us with background on the Northwest
Straits Commission as well as an update on the projects
being worked on by the Snohomish MRC.On February
27th, Fan Tsao of the Marine Conservation Biology Insti-
tute (MCBI) spoke on the work she has been conducting
on deep sea coral conservation. They have spearheaded an
effort to protect deep sea corals and sponsored several im-
portant workshops at the recent American Association for
the Advancement of Science meeting. Fan gave UW’s stu-
dents the cutting-edge scoop on these developments. She
also provided some insights into finding a job and working
in the non-profit sector. An interdepartmental happy hour
was held on February 7th with Daniel J. Evans School’s
Graduate Environmental Policy Group bringing additional
networking opportunities to TSC members. Blue Drinks,
the UW chapter’s regular happy hour networking oppor-
tunity convened in the evening on Wednesday, February
21st. These gatherings provide a chance for students and
professionals in water and marine-related fields to meet in
a casual setting and discuss current issues in science and
policy. Blue Drinks is a young event that we hope will catch
on and grow. As such, we especially encourage new partici-
pants and are working to spread the word both inside and
outside UW. TCS UW Chapter also tries to incorporate ser-
vice projects into the work of our chapter members. Four
members (Amy Embree, Nissa Ferm, Katrina Hoffman,
and Maile Sullivan) did such by volunteering at the 2007
Orca Bowl, the Washington State segment of the National
Ocean Science Bowl.
We have several other spring service projects (Hazel Wolf
Environmental Film Festival, Earth Day Coastal Clean-up)
planned for our members in the coming months.
Duke University
The Duke University chapter is looking forward to spring
activities. In January, we elected our new Board for the
2007-2008 school year:
National Chapter Liaison Carly Knoell came straight to
Duke University after receiving a BA in Biology and Envi-
ronmental Studies at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Min-
nesota. While attending St. Olaf she was a varsity swimmer
and very interested in the environment. Her shared pas-
sion for water and the environment led her to Duke and her
concentration in Coastal Environmental Management. She
is excited to apply her energy and dedication to The Coastal
Society and to improving the coastal environment.
Duke TCS secretary David Carlson graduated with a degree
in geology from Hamilton College in 2001. After graduat-
ing he worked for Sea Education Association aboard their
Katrina Hoffman gives a lesson about the University of Washington's
Puget Sound model while volunteering at the Orca Bowl, the Washing-
ton State portion of the National Ocean Science Bowl.
continued from page 11
continued on page 13
VOLUME 29 (1) 2007 TCS BULLETIN 13
Chapter Updates
TCS 29 (1)
oceanographic-research sailing vessels in the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans. His interests at Duke include marine re-
newable energy technologies and coastal zone management
at the state and local level.
Beaufort events coordinator Beth Pike received her Bach-
elor's degree in Psychology/Biology at Long Island Uni-
versity-Southampton College. Beth worked as a naturalist
and captain on charter boats in Maui, Hawaii. She also
conducted research on North Atlantic right whales for the
New England Aquarium in Boston, Mass. Her interests at
Duke include marine GIS, marine conservation and policy.
Durham events coordinator Daniella Hirschfeld graduated
from Dartmouth College with a dual degree in psychol-
ogy and philosophy. She followed her passion for nature
to Lake Tahoe where she started out as an AmeriCorps
volunteer for the Nevada Conservation Corps. Following
that she got a position as the Tahoe Rim Trail Association's
educational outreach coordinator. Finally, before return-
ing to graduate school she worked in Maine as a wilder-
ness therapy guide. In an effort to change her focus from
education to environmental policy she returned to school.
Currently at Duke she is studying global climate change,
and is hoping to eventually work in the field of water con-
Additionally, we will have a booth on Earth Day at the main
campus in Durham explaining what TCS is, and providing
information on responsible environmental stewardship of
our coasts and oceans. We are looking forward to this, and
are truly excited to have these new, talented folks to carry
on the torch.
East Carolina University (ECU)
We have focused efforts this semester on capitalizing
on ECU’s newly formed Graduate Student Council. TCS
members serve as both officers and committee members,
and have become active participants in this university-wide
organization. We applied for, and have been awarded a
generous operating budget for the 2007-08 academic year.
continued from page 12
Next year’s activities intend to focus on using these funds
to encourage broader participation by our students: in TCS,
GSC, throughout the campus community and in national
We are continuing our efforts to broaden our impact as a
chapter by coordinating and cooperating with other organi-
zations. This spring we intended to organize a beach clean-
up with the ECU chapter of the American Fisheries Society,
but had to postpone this event until a later date.
In April, our chapter sponsored a Virtual Rally for Climate
Action, in conjunction with the National Day of Climate
Action. Ours was one of over 1,400 such rallies held across
the country. More than a dozen volunteers, including non-
TCS members, came out to help distribute fliers and collect
signatures on a petition encouraging Congress to take
action to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Over a hundred
and fifty signatures were collected.
At the end of April, we have planned a gala picnic for all
Coastal Resources Management students and faculty. One
of our members generously agreed to host the event at his
farm, complete with field, forest and stream available for a
multitude of outdoor activities.
Chapter Advisor Dr. Lauriston King (front left) with some
of the members of the ECU Chapter.
Announcing TCS
The Coastal Society’s 21st International Conference
Sunday, June 29-Wednesday, July 2, 2008
Crowne Plaza Redondo Beach, Los Angeles, California
Calling all volunteers: Those with ideas, energy and/or interest in serving on the TCS21 Planning Committee are asked
to send an email to Kristen Fletcher, regarding their interest. Planning Committee conference calls
will take place approximately once a month beginning in May 2007. Thanks! We look forward to seeing everyone next
VOLUME 29 (1) 2007 TCS BULLETIN 14
Upcoming Conference
TCS 28 (2)
Working Waterways & Waterfronts – A National
Symposium on Water Access
May 9 to 11, 2007, Norfolk, VA
Local government officials, coastal management planners,
legal scholars and boating industry representatives will
gather in Norfolk, Virginia next May to explore solutions
to the loss of water access that is hindering recreational
boaters, commercial fishermen and water-dependent busi-
nesses around the nation’s coasts.
CARICOSTAS 2007 -- 3rd International Confer-
ence on Integrated Management of Coastal Zones
May 9-11, 2007, Santiago, Cuba
Organized by Univ. of Oriented, et al.
Third Annual Atlantic Canadian Coastal &
Estuarine Science Society (ACCESS) Conference
and Workshop
May 16-18, 2007, Sydney, NS.
Theme: Our Changing Ecosystems. Hosted by Cape Breton
5th International Symposium on Digital Earth
June 5-9, 2007, San Francisco, CA
Global partnership collaborating for a better future.
International Symposium on ICZM
June 11-14, 2007, Arendal, Norway
This international multi-disciplinary conference is intend-
ed to promote science and integration of knowledge for
the sustainable management of coastal resources. It will
provide a venue for scientists, engineers, managers and
policy-makers to discuss recent advances and innovative
ideas, share experiences and develop networks.
Oceans 2007
June 18-21, 2007, Aberdeen, Scotland
13th International Conference on the Environment
June 30 - July 3, 2007, Portland, Maine
Upcoming Conferences
TCS 29 (1)
Coastal Zone 07
July 22-26, 2007, Portland, OR
Brewing Local Solutions to Your Coastal Issues.
17th World Conference on Disaster Management
July 8-11, 2007, Toronto, Canada
Addressing issues common to all aspects of disaster/emer-
gency management.
15th International Conference on Aquatic Invasive
September 23 - 27, 2007, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
European Symposium on Marine Protected Areas
September 25-28, 2007, Murcia, Spain
Present and discuss the results from ongoing European and
international marine protected area (MPA) research, aim-
ing to contribute to the development of a range of new tools
required to design, implement, monitor and evaluate the
effects of different types of MPAs.
Scientific Workshop on the Impact of Global
Climate Change on the Arctic Coastal Zones
Oct 1-3, 2007, Tromsø, Norway
Theme: Arctic Coastal Zones at Risk. Organized by LOICZ,
International Conference on Management and
Restoration of Coastal Dunes
October 3-5, 2007, Santander, Spain
Kristen Fletcher (President)
Marine Affairs Institute,
Rhode Island Sea Grant
Legal Program,
Roger Williams University
School of Law
10 Metacom Ave.
Bristol, RI 02809
PH: (401) 254-4613
FAX: (401) 254-5734
Term: 1/1/07 - 12/1/08
Jeff Benoit (Pres.-Elect)
SRA International
3434 North Washington Blvd.
Arlington, VA 22201
PH: (703) 284-6191
FAX: (703) 284-1376
Term: 1/1/07 - 12/31/08
(Special Projects Committee
Dr. Paul C. Ticco (Past Pres.)
National Marine Sanctuary
1305 East West Highway, N/
Room 12310
Silver Spring, MD 20910
PH: (301) 563-1162
FAX: (301) 713-3110
Term: 1/1/05 - 12/31/06
Maurice "Mo" Lynch (Trea-
College of William and Mary
Virginia Institute of Marine
P.O. Box 125
Gloucester Point, VA 23062
PH: (804) 542-4852
Term: 1/1/05 - 12/31/07
(Finance Committee Chair)
Amy Blizzard (Secretary)
Urban and Regional Planning
212A Brewster Building
East Carolina University
Greenville, NC 27858
PH: (252) 328-1270
Term: 1/1/07 - 12/31/09
(Communications Committee
Board of Directors
TCS 29 (1)
Ariel A. Cuschnir
The Louis Berger Group, Inc.
2445 M Street NW, 4th Fl.
Washington, DC 20037-1435
PH: (202) 303-2750
FAX: (202) 293-0787
SKYPE: coastaldoctor
Term: 1/1/06 - 12/31/08
(Education Committee Co-Chair)
Susan White
Estuarine Reserves Division, NOAA
1305 East-West Highway, N/ORM5
Silver Spring, MD 20910
PH: (301) 563-1124
FAX: (301) 713-4012
Term: 1/1/07 - 12/31/09
Laurie Jodice
304 Brookstone Way
Central, SC 29630
PH: (864) 656-2209
FAX: (864) 656-2226
Term: 1/1/06 - 12/31/08
Tali Engoltz
NJ Dept. of Environmental Protection
Coastal Management Program
Office of Policy, Planning, and Science
401 E. State St., 7th Fl. West
P.O. Box 418
Trenton, NJ 08625
PH: (609) 633-2201
FAX: (609) 292-4608
Term: 1/1/07 - 12/31/09
Richard H. Burroughs
Dept. of Marine Affairs
URI, Washburn Hall
Kingston, RI 02881
PH: (401) 874-4045
FAX: (401) 874-2156
Term: 1/1/07 - 12/31/09
(Education Committee Co-Chair)
Patrick J. Christie
UW School of Marine Affairs -and-
Jackson School of International Studies
3707 Brooklyn Ave., NE
Seattle, WA 98105
PH: (206) 685-6661
FAX: (206) 543-1917
SKYPE: patrick.christie1
Term: 1/1/06 - 12/31/08
Robert F. Goodwin
37 Vista Vue Drive
Omak, WA 98841
PH: (509) 422-1733
Cell PH: (206) 355-0975
Term: 1/1/05 - 12/31/07
Larry Hildebrand
Strategic Integration Office
Environment Canada-Atlantic
16th Floor, Queen Sq, 45 Alderney Dr.
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 2N6
PH: (902) 426-2131
FAX: (902) 426-6348
Term: 1/1/05 - 12/31/07
Gib L. Chase
EcoConsultants International LLC
6 Kimball Lane
Northborough, MA 01532
PH: (508) 393-9548
Term: 1/1/06 - 12/31/07
Thomas E. Bigford
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
PH: (301) 713-4300 xt. 131
FAX: (301) 713-4305
(Membership Committee Chair)
Kimberly Lellis
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
PH: (301) 713-4300 xt.156
FAX: (301) 713-4305
Special Projects Committee Co-Chair
Term: 1/1/06 - 12/31/07
Duke Student Chapter Liaison
Brendan Hurley
2115 Front Street
Beaufort, NC 28516
PH: (703) 568-5652
East Carolina Chapter Liaison
Valerie Johnson Grussing
Coastal Resources Management Prgm
East Carolina University
365 Flanagan Hall
Greenville, NC 27858
PH: (252) 328-9372
Univ. of Rhode Island Liaison
Christine Patrick
113 Carrington Ave, Apt 1F
Woonsocket, RI 02895
PH: (401) 466-4849
Univ. of Washington Chapter Liaison
Kathleen M. Herrmann
School of Marine Affairs
University of Washington
3707 Brooklyn Ave. NE
Seatte, WA 98105
PH: (517) 420-2458
The Coastal Society
Tax ID Number: 52-1082650
TCS Office
Judy Tucker, CAE, Executive Director
P.O. Box 3590
Williamsburg, VA 23187-3590
PH: (757) 565-0999
FAX: (757) 565-0299
Tax Preparation
Swart, Lalande & Associates, PC
11166 Fairfax Blvd, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030
PH: (703) 361-6126
FAX: (703) 591-9595
Chas Rannells
Bulletin Editor
Ellen Gordon
17401 Ryefield Court
Dickerson, MD 20842
PH: (301) 407-9155
Bulletin Designer and Publisher
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Dept. of Natural Resources Conservation
Holdsworth Hall
Amherst, MA 01003
PH: (413) 545-6641
FAX: (413) 545-4358
David Loomis, Sarah Pautzke
15 TCS BULLETIN VOLUME 29 (1) 2006
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